人教版(新目标)初中英语八年级下册Unit10 知识点精析(3)

  6. The bus is late. We’ve been waiting _______ 20 minutes.
  7. Nobody lives in those houses. They have been empty ________ many years.
  8. Mike has been ill ________ a long time. He has been in hospital _______ October.
  I. 英汉互译。
  1. how long 2. 不再 3. 长大4. at first
  5. 至于…… 6. 放弃7. at least
  8. once or twice a year 9. 根据;按照10. 为了
  II. 根据句意及首字母和汉语提示写出所缺单词。
  1. honest 2. scarf 3. check4. soft
  5. railway6. among 7. consider
  8. memories 9. count10. searched
  III. 用括号内所给单词的适当形式填空。
  1. since2. for3. for4. since5. since
  6. for7. for8. for; since
  1. How long have you had that bike over there?
  how long意为“多长时间”,询问某一动作或状态持续了多久,故句中的谓语动词必须是延续性动词或
  How long do you watch TV? 你看电视多长时间了?
  How long can I keep the book? 这本书我可以借多久?
  【拓展】how long; how often; how soon的辨析:
  how long
  — How long is he staying? 他打算待多久?
  — He’s staying for a week. 他打算待一个星期。
  how often
  — How often do you watch TV?你多久看一次电视?
  — Twice a week. 一周两次。
  how soon
  — How soon will he be back? 他要多久才回来?
  — In an hour. 一小时以后。
  2. Because I don’t read it any more.
  not…any more意为“不再”。not常位于be动词、情态动词或助动词之后,any more常位于句末,相当于no more。no more常位于句中,放在be动词之后,实义动词之前,两者经常可以互换。例如:
  He doesn’t live here any more. = He no more lives here.
  表示“不再”的词还有not…any longer或no longer。二者的区别在于:
  (1) not…any more = no more,表示数量或程度上的“不再”增加,通常修饰终止性动词。例如:
  The baby isn’t crying any more. = The baby is no more crying.
  (2) no longer = not…any longer表示时间或距离上的“不再”延长,通常修饰延续性的动词。例如:
  I can’t stand it any longer. 我对此再也不能忍受下去了。
  3. Amy thinks it’s hard to sell her old things.
  It is/was + adj. + to do sth. 意为“做某事是……的”,to do sth.为句子的真正的主语,而it为形式主语,形式主语不能用别的词来代替,句中可在形容词后加for sb.,意为“对于某人来说,做某事是……的”。例如:
  It’s important for us to learn a foreign language.
  It’s necessary for us to eat more fruit and vegetables.
  这个句型中的for sb.有时也可以用of sb. 二者意义有区别:
  (1) 在It’s + adj. + for sb. to do sth. 中,for sb.意为“对某人来说”,句中的形容词是用来说明to do sth.的,形式主语只能用it。例如:
  It’s necessary for the students to do some housework.
  (2) 在It’s + adj. + of sb. to do sth. 中of sb. 意为“某人……”,句中形容词可与逻辑主语sb. 构成系表结构,即形容词是用来说明或形容sb.(某人)的。例如:
  It’s very kind of you to help us.
  4. Jim has been inJapanfor three days.
  (1) been是be动词的过去分词形式。
  (2) have been in 是be in的现在完成时形式,一般与段时间状语连用。例如:
  He has been in hospital for two months. 他住院已经有两个月了。
  【拓展】have been to; have been in 与have gone to的辨析:
  (1) “have/ has been to + 地点”表示“去过某地”,现在已经回来了。例如:
  I’ve been to Beijing twice. 我已去过北京两次。
  (2) “have/has been in + 地点”表示“在某地待了一段时间”。例如:
  He’s been in this school for two years. 他在这所学校待了两年了。
  (3)“ have/has gone to + 地点”表示“到某事去了”,现在还没有回来,可能在去的途中,也可能在那里或返回的途中。例如:
  — Where’s Wei Hua? 魏华在哪里?
  — She has gone to the zoo. 她到动物园去了。
  5. But he also thinks some things will never change, and his hometown is still the place that holds all his childhood memories.
  这是一个复合句,some things至句末为宾语从句,作thinks的宾语。在该宾语从句中包含由and连接的
  两个分句,在第二个分句中,“that holds all his childhood memories”是定语从句,修饰先行词place。关
  I like clothes that/which are unusual.
  Pass me the book(that/which) you bought for me yesterday.
  I. 根据汉语提示完成英语句子(每空一词)。
  1. 你拥有那边的那辆自行车多长时间了?
  ______ ______ ______ you ______ that bike over there?
  2. 请查看一下这些玩具是否完好。
  Please ______ ______ if these toys are all right.
  3. 说实在的,我很喜欢美国乡村音乐。
  ______ ______ ______, I like American country music very much.
  4. 我在纽约住了几个星期。
  I have lived in New York for ______ ______ ______ weeks.
  5. 他不懈地学习着,直到不再讨厌数学为止。
  He worked and worked until he ______ ______ hated mathematics.
  6. 怀特先生的记忆力很差。
  Mr. White has ______ ______ ______.
  7. “空的”是“满的”的反义词。
  “Empty” is ______ ______ ______ “full”.
  8. 许多警察和官兵正在森林里搜寻从监狱里跑出来的犯人。
  Many policemen and soldiers are ______ the forest ______ the prisoner escaping from prison.
  II. 句型转化,每空一词。
  1. He ran in the school for half an hour. (对划线部分提问)
  ______ ______ ______ he run in the school?
  2. We started to skate two hours ago. (对划线部分提问)
  ______ ______ you start to skate?
  3. They started to play the piano one or two hours ago. (改为同义句)
  They started to play the piano ______ ______ ______ two ago.
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